HISTORICAL AND MODERN METHODS FOR THE INTEGRATION OF ROMA IN EUROPE AND BULGARIA

Mira Doncheva

Abstract


This study presents a retrospective analysis of the origin and migration of Roma community, historical and contemporary methods for its integration in Europe and Bulgaria. The main conclusion is that when the change comes from coercion and no acceptance relationship, then the answer is resistance to any integration because of mistrust. Inactivity or simulation of an action distracts integration and makes it increasingly difficult. A continuity policy needs to be put in place in order to start the tension decrease, and further to take active steps towards a more peaceful coexistence. In the meantime, the Roma community, which is characterized by a great deal of flexibility in adaptation, needs to gain interest in integrating the labor market in order to gradually disrupt the exclusion model. There is a need to change the mindset of the majority. As a start, it is good to realize that the problems of an ethnic group are a problem for the whole society because it is impossible to isolate it. The truth is that if the necessary involvement of the majority of society is not available, no one can be integrated within it.


Keywords


roma, origin, migration, integration

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bezlov T., Iv. Mihalev, Darik nyuz – 03.10.2011 g. https://dariknews.bg/novini/komentar/kakvo-se-krie-zad-romskiq-syd-meshere-

Georgieva Tsv., Irina Ilieva predpochete romite u nas pred blagopoluchie v Holandiya, v. Trud 02.07.2017 g.

Kolev A., Romite v zhivota na balgarskiya narod, Problemi na kulturata, kn. 2, 1994.

Kyuchukov Hr., Romska kultura, Izd. Unitsef, Sofiya 1993.

Liezhoa Zh., Romi, tsigani, chergari, Izd. IDTS kam Saveta na Evropa, Sofiya 1996.

Marinov V., Nablyudenie varhu bita na tsiganite v Balgariya, Izvestiya na etnografskiya institut i muzey, tom 5, Sofiya 1962.

Marushiakova E, Popov V., Maltsinstvata v mediite: realnosti i predrazsadatsi, Proekt: Prava na choveka, Sofiya 1997.

Marushiakova E, Popov V., Predstavata za tsiganina v balgarskoto obshtestveno saznanie, Proekt: Prava na choveka, Sofiya 1997.

Marushiakova E, Popov V., Studii Romani, tom 1 i 2 , Izd. Klub 90, Sofiya 1995.

Marushiakova E., Popov V., Tsiganite v Balgariya, Izd. Klub 90, Sofiya 1995.

Marushiakova, E., Popov, V. Tsiganite v Osmanskata imperiya. Sofiya: Litavra, 2000.

Nay-dobrite praktiki na romski proekti na Tsentralna i Iztochna Evropa, Izd. Fondatsiya Partnyori Balgariya, Sofiya.

Nunev Y., Legendi, Studii romani tom 1.

Nunev Y., Romskoto dete i negovata semeyna sreda, Mezhdunaroden tsentar po problemite na maltsinstvata i kulturnite vzaimootnosheniya, Sofiya 1998.

Operativna programa „Razvitie na choveshkite resursi“ 2014-2020 g.

Terziev Sv., Frantsiya obyavi romite za vlizane na Balgariya v Shengen, v. Sega 15.082012 g.

Tomova I., Romite v usloviya na kriza, sp. Izbor prolet-lyato 1997.

Tsekov N., Preselenieto na balgarskite romi, Doyche Vele 30.04.2013 g.

Achim, V. (1998), The Roma in Romanian History, Central European University Press. Alston, P. and R. Goodman (2013), International Human Rights, Oxford University Press. Arnull, A. (2006), The European Union and its Court of Justice, Oxford: Oxford European Union Law Library.

Alfred Siegfried, Kinder der Landstrasse, Pro Juventute, Zurich 1964.

Aubrey-Poiner, K. and Phillips, J. (2010) “Are we there yet? Ten years on from the Decade of Reconciliation: A Reconciliation Progress Report”, Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation (ANTaR), November 2010.

Ballegooij W. and Evas T (2016), “An EU Mechanism on Democracy, the Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights”, Interim European Added Value Assessment accompanying the Legislative initiative report (Rapporteur Sophie in ‘t Veld), European Parliamentary Research Service, October 2016, PE.579.328.

Barany Z., The East European Gypsies: Regime Change, Marginality and Ethnopolitics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Bárd, P., Carrera, S. (2017), “The Commission’s Decision on ‘Less EU’ in Safeguarding the Rule of Law: A play in four acts, CEPS Policy Insights, No. 2017/08.

Barna, I. and Bulcsú, H. (2015), “Report on Xenophobia, Discrimination, Religious Hatred and Aggressive Nationalism in Hungary in 2015”.

Bartlett, W., Gordon, C., & Kamphuis, B. (2015), “Evaluation of the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies”, Study for the European Parliament LIBE Committee.

Berg, L. and Lundahl, M. (2017), “(Un-) veiling the west: Burkini-gate, Princess Hijab and dressing as struggle for postsecular integration”, Culture Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research, 8(3), pp.263- 283.

Bieber, F. (2008), “Introduction”, in: FES, Political Parties and Minority Participation, Skopje: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung – Office Macedonia.

Bigo, D., Brouwer, E., Carrera, S., Guild, E., Guittet, E.P., Jeandesboz, J., Ragazzi, F. and Scherrer, A. (2015), “The EU counter-terrorism policy responses to the attacks in Paris: Towards an EU security and liberty agenda”, CEPS Papers in Liberty and Security in Europe, (81).

Bigo, D., Carrera, S., Guild, E. and Radescu, R. (2017), “A quest for accountability? EU and Member State inquiries into the CIA Rendition and Secret Detention Programme”, European Parliament Study, DG IPOL, Brussels.

Carrera, S., Vosyliūtė, L., Rostas, I. (2017), “European Policies and Funds to Address Antigypsyism Investigating Promising Practises at Five Member States”, Brussels: CEPS.

Chopin, I., Germaine, C., Tanczos, J. (2017), “European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination”, Roma and the enforcement of anti-discrimination law, European Commission, Directorate General for Justice and Consumers.

Copenhagen Mechanism, CEPS 2013.

Debrecéniová, J., Durbáková, V. (2017), “European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and NonDiscrimination, Country Report - Non- Discrimination: Slovakia”, European Commission, Directorate General for Justice and Consumers.

Droshout, D., Bell, M., Choudhury, T., De Schutter, O., Gerards, J., McColgan, A., Moon, G., Schiek, D. and Waddington, L., (2007), Non-discrimination law, Hart: Portland.

Études tsiganes, Three main communities of Gypsies in Central Europe are the Yenish (German speakers said to be of German origin), Sinti and Roma. For further reading, Paris 1996.

European Roma Policy Coalition (2011), “EU Roma Framework weak on discrimination against Roma”, ERPC Statement, 5 April.

Fassin, E., Fouteau, C., Guichard, S. and Windels, A. (2014), Roms & riverains : Une politique municipale de la race, Paris: La Fabrique.

Favilli, C. (2017), “European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-Discrimination, Country Report - Non- Discrimination: Italy”, European Commission, Directorate General for Justice and Consumers, European Commission, Directorate General for Justice and Consumers.

Fonseca Is., Begrabt mich aufrecht, Auf den Spuren der Zigeuner, München 1996.

Franser An., The Gypsies, Oxford 1992.

Gelu, D., Ivasiuc, A. et all (2013), “The Roma in Romania. From Scapegoat to Development Engine”, Federal Foreign Office study.

Gibson, J.L. (2005), “The Truth about Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa”, International Political Science Review / Revue internationale de science politique, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 341-361.

Grillo, R. and Shah, P. (2016), “The Anti-Burqa Movement in Western Europe”, The Burqa Affair across Europe: Between Public and Private Space, pp.197-224.

Groenendijk, K. (2014), “Reverse discrimination, family reunification and Union citizens of immigrant origin”, in: Guild, E., Rotaeche, CG., Kostakopoulou, D. (eds.), The Reconceptualization of European Union Citizenship,: Martinus Nijhoff: Leiden/Boston, Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy in Europe Vol. 33, p. 169-188.

Guild, E., (2016), Rethinking Migration Distribution in the EU: Shall we start with the facts?, CEPS Essay, January 2016. Scaling up Roma Inclusion strategies: Truth, reconciliation and justice for addressing antigypsyism

Hartmann, Y.L. and Gerdes, H. (2015), “What Justice for Sweden’s Roma?”, Stockholm: Swedish Foundation for Human Rights.

Heinschink, Mozes F., Hemetek Ur (eds.), Roma. Das unbekannte Volk, Schicksal und Kultur, Wien 1994.

http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/awareness/index_en.htm - достъпна на 22.08.2017 г.

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32013H1224 (01) – достъпна на 22.08.2017 г.

http://socbg.com/2014/04/%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%BA-%D0%B6%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%B5%D1%85%D0%B0-%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5-%D1%83-%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%81-%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BE-%D0%B1%D1%8F%D1%85%D0%B0-%D0%BF%D1%80.html - достъпна на 26.08.2017 г.

http://www.21luglio.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Legge-Regione-Veneto-22-dicembre-1989-n%C2%B054-Interventi-a-tutela-della-cultura-dei-Rom-e-dei-Sinti.pdf - достъпна на 21.08.2017 г.

http://www.coe.int/t/commissioner/Activities/GoodPractices/Latvia_RomaEducation.pdf - достъпна на 23.08.2017 г.

http://www.dw.com/bg/%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%BE-%D0%BD%D0%B0-%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5/a-16724892 - достъпна на 19.08.2017 г.

http://www.osf.bg/downloads/File/RomaGuideFinal.pdf - достъпна на 24.08.2017 г.

https://dariknews.bg/regioni/stara-zagora/forum-za-romskata-integraciia-zapochva-v-slynchev-briag-2022437 - достъпна на 29.08.2017 г.

https://offnews.bg/sviat/germania-s-novi-merki-sreshtu-balgari-i-rumantci-381468.html - достъпна на 28.08.2017 г.

https://translate.google.bg/translate?hl=bg&sl=it&u=http://www.sucardrom.eu/regionale.html&prev=search - достъпна на 21.08.2017 г.

https://wol.iza.org/uploads/articles/39/pdfs/roma-integration-in-european-labor-markets.pdf - достъпна на 23.08.2017 г.

Hughes, J. (2017), “Instructive Past: Lessons from the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples for the Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission on Indian Residential Schools”, Canadian Journal of Law and Society, vol. 27, pp. 101-127. •

Ilieva, M. (2017), “European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-Discrimination, Country Report - Non- Discrimination: Bulgaria”, European Commission, Directorate General for Justice and Consumers.

Iordache, R. (2017), “European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-Discrimination, Country Report - Non- Discrimination: Romania”, European Commission, Directorate General for Justice and Consumers.

Kenrick D. A, Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies), Lanham: Scarerow Press, 1998.

Kochenov, D. and Dimitrovs, A. (2016), EU Citizenship for Latvian 'Non-Citizens': A Concrete Proposal, Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 38, pp.1-40.

Koutouki, K. and Farget, D. (2012), “Contemporary Regulation of Public Policy Participation of the Saami and Roma: A Truncated Process”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Vol. 19, No. 4.

Kruma, K. (2012), An Ongoing Challenge: EU Citizenship, Migrant Status and Nationality: Focus on Latvia. Lund: Lund University, Media-Tryck.

Latraverse, S. (2017), European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-Discrimination, Country Report -Non-Discrimination: France”, European Commission, Directorate General for Justice and Consumers.

Lukács, G. (2017), “Addressing Extreme Poverty in Hungary - How the Development Sector Is Working with and for, Communities”, Badur. • Matache, M. and Bhabha, J. (2016) “Roma Slavery: The Case for Reparations”, Foreign Policy in Focus, April 22, 2016.

Mayerhofer Cl., Dorfzigeuner, Kultur und Geschichte der Burgenland-Roma von der Ersten Republik bis zur Gegenwart, Wien 1999.

Mihaylova, D. and Kashamov, A. (2013), “Grazhdanskata registraciya v Balgaria: Sastoyanie na neopredelenost” (Civil Registration in Bulgaria: A State of Uncertainty), Institut Otvoreno Obshtestvo.

Mirga-Kruszelnicka A., and S. Skenderi (2017) “Revisiting the EU Roma Framework: Assessing the European Dimension for the Post-2020 Future”, OSEPI, March 2017.

Remmel Fr., Die Roma Rumäniens. Volk ohne Hinterland, Wien 1993.

Rixer, Á. (2015), “The Roma and Central Public Administration in Hungary,” in: The Roma and Public Administration in Hungary, ed. Rixer, Á., Budapest: Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary - Lajos Lőrincz Research Centre for Public Law. Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs

Rostas (2014), “Roma and Sinti political participation: Opportunities and risks of local-level engagement”, Background Paper for OSCE/ODIHR Expert Meeting in Warsaw on 28 November 2014, in: ODIHR (2016), Summary Report of the Expert Meeting in Warsaw on 28 November 2014, Warsaw.

See Jacques Testard, Le Désir du gene, Flammarion, Paris, 1994.

Sigona, N. and Monasta, L. (2006), “Imperfect Citizenship. Research into Patterns of Racial Discrimination against Roma and Sinti in Italy,”in: Leonardo Piasere, I Rom d’Europa. Una Storia Moderna, Roma, Bari: Laterza.

Sylvia Thode-Studer, Les Tsiganes suisses, la marche vers la reconnaissance, Realités sociales, Lausanne 1987.

Tavani, C. (2012), Collective Rights and the Cultural Identity of the Roma, A Case Study of Italy, Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Vossen R., Zigeuner. Roma, Sinti, Gitanos, Gypsies zwischen Verfolgung und Romantisierung, Hamburg 1983.

Wright, K., Swain, S., and Sköld, J. (2017). The Age of Inquiry: A global mapping of institutional abuse inquiries. Melbourne: La Trobe University.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


New knowledge Journal of science Jubilee edition is financed by the National Science Fund of the Republic of Bulgaria – contract № ДНП 05/52 от 22.12.2016 in the competition of Bulgarian scientific periodicals – 2016

The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the position or opinion of the National Science Fund of the Republic of Bulgaria. The opinions expressed are those of the author(s) only and should not be considered as representative of the National Science Fund’s official position.

https://www.fni.bg/

National Science Fund of Bulgaria