CULTIVATION OF ALTERNATIVE CROPS IN THE EASTERN RHODOPES IN BULGARIA

Elena Nikolova-Kostadinova

Abstract


At a time when the introduction of any novelty in production or agriculture is being considered in the light of the damage to nature, and society is finally beginning to measure its technological progress with the degree of conservation, alternative crops are turning out to be a small fortune. The pursuit of sustainable development, declining agro-biodiversity and the health benefits associated with unique nutritional qualities are the main reasons for exploring and growing new alternative crops. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient agricultural production and the application of alternative agriculture in the area. The reasons for the need of the study are the fragmented and low-fertile land and the orientation of the Rhodopes agriculture towards ecological production and the requirements of the European market. The study included fiber, energy, oil and protein crops as alternative tobacco crops in the geographical territories of the Eastern Rhodopes - the districts of Kardjali and Haskovo. It was found that the fields with annual crops in the lands of the town of Ivaylovgrad in the Haskovo district realized higher yields than the respective studied crops. Of all the thirteen crops, the highest development and high yields were found in spelled, triticale, safflower, miscanthus, olives and almonds during the study period, and yields of hemp, flax, rapeseed, soybean, sorghum and buckwheat were unsatisfactory.


Keywords


alternative crops, protein crops, Olea europaea, oil crops, energy crops, fiber crops

Full Text:

PDF

References


Georgiev, I., Demirev, Zh., 2004. Vliyanie na agrotehnicheskite srokove pri razlichni pochvoobrabotki varhu dobiva ot rapitsa. Trudove na nauchnata sesiya na RU.

Demirev, Zh., Dobrinov, V., Bratoev, K. 2012. Izbor na podhodyashta tehnologiya za otglezhdane i pribirane na rapitsa. Nauchni trudove na Rusenskiya universitet - 2012, tom 51, seriya 1.1, 97-99.

Dobrinov, V., Demirev, Zh., 2004. Vliyanie na agrotehnicheskite srokove pri razlichni shemi na seitba varhu dobiva ot rapitsa. Trudove na nauchnata sesiya na RU.

Ivanov, M. 2006. Biodizelat ot rapitsa - realnata alternativa na fosilnite goriva. http://evropa.dnevnik.bg/show/print.php?storyid=256895/.

Ignatova, D. 2012. Hartiya ot konop spasyava darveta ot izsichane - vazmozhnosti za realizirane na proekta v Balgariya. Sp. „Harmoniya“, br. 1.

Yordanov, P. 2013. Obrabotkata na pochvata tryabva da e vlagosahranyavashta. Rastenievadstvo – glasat na fermera.

Melteva, B. 2013. Konopat – zelenata treva. Konop.bg

Nikolova, E. 2012. Vazmozhnosti za adaptatsiya i otglezhdane na maslini v geografskite teritorii na Rodopskiya masiv v Balgariya. Nauchno spisanie „Novo znanie“, VUARR, Plovdiv, br. 2, 57-64.

Nikolova, E. 2012. Miskantus (Miscanthus) – noviya bum v energiynite kulturi. Sp. „Praktichno zemedelie“ – spetsialna publikatsiya, br. 4, str. 26-27.

Programa za razvitie na alternativnoto zemedelie v Rodopite.

Belaj et al. 2007. Cenetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Vol.105, № 4.

Candice M. Smitha, Mark B. David, Corey A. Mitchellab, Michael D. Mastersa, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeiraa, Carl J. Bernacchiace and Evan H. DeLuciaacd. 2013. Reduced Nitrogen Losses after Conversion of Row Crop Agriculture to Perennial Biofuel Crops. Journal of Environmental Quality. Vol. 42, 1: 219-228.

Cavagnaro. P., J. Juarez, M. Bauza & R. W. Masuelli. 2001. Discrimination de variedades de olivo a traves del uso de caracteres morfologigos y de marcadores moleculares.Vol.18:27-35.

Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen L., R. 2000. Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40:889-901.

Drinkwater C. 2006. The Olive Route. Weidenfeld & Nicholson. ISBN 02978478899.

Galbally, P., C. Fagan, D. Ryan, J. Finnan, J. Grant and K. McDonnell. 2012. Biosolids and Distillery Effluent Amendment to Irish Miscanthus ×giganteus Plantations: Impacts on Groundwater and Soil. Journal of Environmental Quality 41:114-123.

Lewandowski, I. J. C. Clifton-Brownb, B. Anderssonc, G. Baschd & et al. 2003. Environment and Harvest Time Affects the Combustion Qualities of Miscanthus Genotypes. Agronomy Journal, Vol 95, 5:1274-1280.

Lewandowski, I., J. C. Clifton-Brown, J. M. O. Scurlock, and W. Huis-man. 2000. Miscanthus: European experience with a novel energy their assistance in the Danish field experiment; crop. Biomass Bioenergy 19:209–227.

Nikolova, E. 2015. Prospects for Olive Growing in Bulgaria. Balkan and Near Eastern Journal of Social Sciences 01(01):109-114.

Nikolova, E. 2017. Study the Possibility of Cultivation of Olives, Walnuts and Almonds in a Ivaylovgrad in Bulgaria. III. IBANESS Congress Series, Edirne/ Turkey, 1007 1013.

Nikolova, E. 2018. Opportunities for restoration of olives from frost in the Rhodope mountain massif. IBANESS Congress Series-Tekirdag/Turkey March 24-25, 2018, Volume I:8 15.

Hakan, O. 2003. Sowing date and nitrogen rate effects on growth, yield and yield components of two summer rapeseed cultivars. EuropeanJournal of Agronomy, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 453-463.

PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. 2007 Abrief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine. Zatoun.

Zajac, T., Borowiec, F., Gierdziewicz, M. 2003. The influ ence of spring oilseed rape sowing density on plant and canopy leafage, seed yield, morphological traits and fatty acid concentration in oil. JMIR, Vol. 24 (No. 2) pp. 423-441.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


New knowledge Journal of science is financed by the National Science Fund of the Republic of Bulgaria - contract № КП-06-НП1/5 of 17.12.2019 in the competition of Bulgarian scientific periodicals – 2019

New knowledge Journal of science is financed by the National Science Fund of the Republic of Bulgaria – contract № ДНП 05/52 от 22.12.2016 in the competition of Bulgarian scientific periodicals – 2016

The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the position or opinion of the National Science Fund of the Republic of Bulgaria. The opinions expressed are those of the author(s) only and should not be considered as representative of the National Science Fund’s official position.

https://www.fni.bg/

National Science Fund of Bulgaria