Veselka Vlahova


Organic agriculture is a specific method of production that supports ecological balance and has a minimum negative impact on neighboring natural ecosystems and on human health. An experiment was carried out in 2009- 2011 on the territory of a certified ecological farm of the Agroecological Centre at the Agricultural University-Plovdiv (Bulgaria). The experiment aims at researching the impact of applied biofertilizers on the phenological development, the biometric and physiological parameters of seedlings and the field conditions of organically cultivated pepper cv. Kurtovska Kapiya 1619, under the agroecological conditions of the region of Plovdiv. The study included biofertilizers- Lumbrical, Boneprot, Seasol, Baikal EM, Bio One, Emosan. Statistical data processing was done by Microsoft Office Excel 2017, SPSS and BIOSTAT. The stimulation effect on the growth of the vegetative organs in the seedling stage is the highest upon feeding with the biofertilizer Emosan on the Boneprot basic fertilization (2009, 2010, 2011). The biometric status of plants grown under field conditions confirms the stimulating effect of biofertilizers, as also established in seedling production. At the stage fruitfulness the application of Baikal on basic fertilization with Boneprot (2009, 2010, 2011) had the best stimulating effect on the net photosynthetic rate, and Bio One on basic fertilization with Boneprot (2009, 2011) had the highest impact on transpiration intensity and stomatal conductance, thus determining the specifics of the positive impact of the application of the biofertilizers in the agroecosystem. There is linear dependence between the temperature sum and the duration of the periods - from sprouting to the first true leaf (inclusive) at values of R=0.778, flowering (including the stages of flower bud and flowering) at values of R=0.92, and fruitfulness at values of R=0.918. The same may be used for prognostication of the duration of the separate periods of vegetation and the used variety of pepper. The application of biofertilizers aims at the optimization of the fertilization system in order to ensure the stable ecological environment in the agro-ecosystem without any environmental risk.


biofertilizers, Capsicum annuum L., leaf gas exchange, organic agriculture, phenological development, seedlings, vegetative growth

Full Text:



Antonova, G. (2012). Study on yield and quality characters in cabbage seed obtained in the conditions of organic trial. Cruciferae Newsletter, 31, 22-25.

Antonova, G., Kalapchieva, S., Todorova, V., Nacheva, E., Masheva, S., Yankova, V., Boteva, H., Kanazirska, V. (2012a). Bulgarian varieties of pepper, garden pea, headed cabbage and potatoes suitable for bio production. New Knowledge. Journal of Science, 1(3), 7 11.

Antonova, G., Masheva, S. and Yankova, V. (2012b). Evaluation of head cabbage genotypes in the aspect of their use as initial material for organic breeding. Cruciferae Newsletter, vol. 31, 37-40.

Arabska, E. (2014). Organic production-innovations and sustainability chalenges in development framework and management. pp. 164. https://www.lap-publishing.com/.

Arabska, E., Velikova, M. (2017). Developing a complex model for sustainable rural development. New Knowledge Journal of Science, ISSN 2367-4598, pp. 105-119.

Badzhelova, V., M. Pashev, D. Yakimov, S. Todorova. (2016). Vlianie na mikrobialnia tor ’Ekosist-arbanasi’ varhu rastezha I razvitietro na maslodaina roza. IX Международная научно-практическая конференция „Иновации в технологиях и образовании“, Беловo, часть 2, стр. 220-223.

Bellwood, P. (2005). First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Malden, USA: Blackwell Publishing.

Berova, M., Karanatsidis, G. (2008). Physiological Response and Yield of Pepper plants (Capsicum annum L.) to Organic fertilization. J. Cent. Eur. Agriculture, (9), 4, p. 715 722.

Bozhanska, T. (2018). Botanical and morphological composition of artificial grassland of bird's-foot-trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus L.) treated with Lumbrical and Lumbrex. Banat,s Journal of Biotechnology, IX(19), 12- 19, DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(19)–12.

Bozhanska,T., Georgieva, M., Georgiev, D., Ivanov, T., Naydenova, G. (2019). Legumes in soil surface maintenance system in the mountain and biological fruit growing. J. BioSci. Biotech, 8(2): 129-134.

Chaterjee, B., Ghanti, P., Thapa, U., Tripathy, P. (2005). Effect of organic nutrition in sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleraceae var. Italic Plenck). Vegetable Science.33(1):51-54.

Churkova B., Bozhanska T. (2016). Productivity and level of weed infestation of legume meadow grasses depending on grass species and fertilization. International Journal of Bioassays 5.8, pp. 4739-4743. ISSN 2278- 778N, http://dx.doi.org/10.21746/ijbio. 2016.08.003.

Dintcheva, T., Yankova, V., Markova, D., Boteva, H. (2020). Opportunities for Organic Production of Vegetables under Conditions of Climate Change. New Knowledge. Journal of Science, 9-1, 115-125.

Dintcheva, Ts., Boteva, H., Arnaoudov, B. (2016). Effect of Vermicompost and System of Cultivation on Tomatoes Seedlings. Евразийский Союз Ученых (ЕСУ), 3 (24), 100 104.

Duncan, D. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F-test. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.

Enchev S., Kokindonov G. (2016). Genotypic reaction of fodder beet to organic fertilization. Journal of Mountain Agriculture on the Balkans, vol. 19, (5), pp. 112- 123.

Ganeva, B. (1984). Guidelines for plant Phenological Observations. Sofia. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

Goutami, N., Kumari, H. A., Lakshmi, M.V., Nayak, B.N. S. (2017). Role of Biofertilizers - Towards Organic Agriculture. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Advanced Research Trends, 4 (3), 174-178.

Guilherme, R., Reboredo, F., Guerra, M., Ressurreição, S., Alvarenga, N. (2020). Elemental Composition and Some Nutritional Parameters of Sweet Pepper from Organic and Conventional Agriculture. Plants, 9, (863), 1-15, doi:10.3390/plants9070863.

Khan, T. A., Naeem, A. (2011). An alternate high yielding inexpensive procedure for the purification of concanavalin A. Biology and Medicine, 3(2): 250-259.

Kirchev, Hr., Matev, A., Delibaltova, V., Sevov, A. (2010). Phenological Development Of Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) Varieties Depending On The Climatic Conditions in Plovdiv Region; BALWOIS 2010; https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/233935476

Kirchev, Hr., Matev, A., Delibaltova, V., Ianchev I. (2014) Phenological development of soybean (Glycine max L. MERR.) depending on the genotype and agrometeorological conditions. University of Forestry, Sofia (Bulgaria), 138-146, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263164680.

Kostadinova, P., Popov, V. (2012). Basic Principles and Methods of Organic Farming. New Knowledge. University of Agribusiness and Rural Development Edition, 1 (3), 55-63.

Koynov, V.Y., Kabakchiev, I.G., Boneva, K.K. (1998). Soil Atlas of Bulgaria [in Bulgarian].

Mäder, P., Fliessbach, A., Dubois, D., Gunst, L., Fried, P., Niggli, U. (2002). Soil Fertility and Biodiversity in Organic Farming. Science, vol. 296, pp. 1694-1697. DOI: 10.1126/science.1071148.

Mazid, M., Khan, T.A., Mohammad, F. (2011). Potential of NO and H2O2 as signaling molecules in tolerance to abiotic stress in plants. Journal of Industrial Research & Technology. 1:56-68.

Mazid, M., Khan, T.A., Mohammad, F. (2012). Role of nitrate reductase in nitrogen fixation under photosynthetic regulation. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 1(3): 386 414.

Mazid, M. M., Khan, A. T. (2014). Future of Bio-fertilizers in Indian Agriculture: An Overview. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research. 3, (3), 10-23.

Mishra, P., Dash, D. (2014). Rejuvenation of Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture and Economic Development. Consilience: The Journal of Sustainable Development, 11, (1), 41-61.

Paull, J. (2010). From France to the World: The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). Journal of Social Research & Policy, 1 (2):93- 102.

Popova, I. (2019). Organisations of Organic Food Producers in Bulgaria – Analysis of Current Situation and Future Perspectives. New Knowledge Journal of Science, pp. 51-61 (BG).

Raffi, M. M. (2018). Sustainable Agriculture and the Role of Biofertilizers. Journal of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR), 7, (4).

Regulation (EC) No. 889/2008 of 5 September 2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No. 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products with regard to organic production, labelling and control. Official Journal of the European Union L 250/, 84.

Risal, D., Halim, A. (2020). Organic Fertilizer Test For Growth Curly Chili On Poor Soil. Jurnal Ecosolum, 9, (1), 19-27, ISSN ONLINE: 2654-430X, Doi: 10.20956/ecosolum.v9i1.8667.

Saini J.P., Kumar R. (2014). Long term effect of organic sources of nutrients on productivity and soil health in maize+soybean-wheat+gram cropping system. Proceedings of the 4th ISOFAR Scientific Conference. ‘Building Organic Bridges’, at the Organic World Congress 2014, 13-15 Oct., Istanbul, Turkey (eprint ID 23210).

Sharma, R., Khokhar, K.M., Jat, L.R., Khandelwal, K.S.(2012). Role of algae and cyanobacteria in sustainable agriculture system Wudpecker Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(9), 381-388.

Sheikh, B.A., Jabeen, N., Baseerat, A., Makhdoomi, M.I. (2017). Influence of organic cultivation on growth, yield and quality of Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum). SKUAST Journal of Research, 19, (2), 203- 208, Online ISSN: 2349-297X.

Todorova, V. (2013). Evaluation of some quality characters of pepper organic seeds. Международной научно-практической конференции «Научное обеспечение картофелеводства, овощеводства и бахчеводства: достижения и перспективы» 11-12 декабря 2013 года Казахстан,516-519. /in English/.

Vlahova, V. (2013a). Agroecological aspects of the mid-early production of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Dissertation. Plovdiv:Agricultural university- Plovdiv, pp. 234.

Vlahova, V. (2013b). Effect of the Biofertiliser Baikal EM-1Y and the Agrometeorological Conditions on the Phonological Development of Pepper upon Organic Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Science and Forest Science, 12 (3-4), 77- 84.

Vlahova, V., Popov, V. (2014). Impact of Biofertilisers on Vegetative growth and Leaf gas-exchange of Pepper Seedlings (Capsicum annuum l.) in Organic farming. AgroLife Scientific Journal. 3, (1).

Vlahova, V., Popov,V., Boteva, H., Zlatev, Z., Cholakov, D. (2014). Influence of Biofertilisers on the Vegetative growth, Mineral content and Physiological parameters of Pepper (Capsicum annuum l.) cultivated under Organic agriculture conditions. Acta Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus. 13(4), 199-216.

Vlahova,V., Popov, V., Kouzmova, K. (2015). Impact of biofertilisers and agrometeorological conditions on phenological growth of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in organic agriculture. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 16 (2), 181-198, DOI: 10.5513/JCEA01/16.2.1608.

Yakimov, D. (2013). Inovativni torove i preparati s estestven proizhod-alternativa v biologichnoto i konvenzionalnoto zemedelie. ISBN: 978-619-7048-41-4, pp. 166.

Zargar,M., Astarkhanova, T., Pakina, E., Astarkhanov, I., Rimikhanov, A., Gyulmagomedova, S., Ramazanova, Z., Rebouh, N. (2017). Survey of biological components efficiency on safety and productivity of different tomato cultivars. Res. on Crops. 18 (2), 279 288, DOI: 10.5958/2348-7542.2017.00048.1.

Zlatev, Zl., Popov, V. (2013). Effect of organic fertilizers on photosynthesis of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Agricultural Science & Technology, 5 (1), 35-38.

Zorovski, P., Popov, V., Georgieva, T. (2018). Growth and development of Tr. monococum L., Tr. dicoccum Sch., and Tr. spelta L. in Organic Farming conditions. Contemporary Agriculture, 67 (1), 45-50.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

New knowledge Journal of science is financed by the National Science Fund of the Republic of Bulgaria - contract № КП-06-НП1/5 of 17.12.2019 in the competition of Bulgarian scientific periodicals – 2019

New knowledge Journal of science is financed by the National Science Fund of the Republic of Bulgaria – contract № ДНП 05/52 от 22.12.2016 in the competition of Bulgarian scientific periodicals – 2016

The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the position or opinion of the National Science Fund of the Republic of Bulgaria. The opinions expressed are those of the author(s) only and should not be considered as representative of the National Science Fund’s official position.


National Science Fund of Bulgaria