Teodora Ilieva, Anna Karova


One of the most important steps for the implementation of efficient plant protection activities is the accurate determination of the phytosanitary status of the crops and the identification of pests using appropriate methods. A good agricultural plant protection program is the key to making environmentally sound pest management decisions. The need for control and the impact are determined by monitoring pest populations and providing information on their density, population dynamics, and developmental stages. One of the ways is the use of sticky panels for monitoring and traps, which reduce the use of plant protection products and at the same time protect the environment. In this way, modifying agricultural practices and getting closer to nature will help sustainably develop the farm.


pest monitoring, sticky tapes, sticky boards, traps

Full Text:



Ahmad, S. N., N. Kamarudin. (2011). Pheromone trapping in controlling key insect pests: progress and prospects. Oil Palm Bulletin 62: 12-24.

Alpizar, D., M. Fallas, A. C. Oehlschager, L. M. Gonzalez, C. M. Chinchilla, J. Culgarelli. (2002). Pheromone mass trapping of the West Indian sugarcane weevil and the American palm oil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in palmito palm. Florida Entomologist, 85: 426 430.

Binns, M. R., J. P. Nyrop, W. van der Werf. (2000). Sampling and Monitoring in Crop Protection (first ed.), CABI Publishing, New York. 284 pp.

Boo, K. S. C. H. Jung. (1998). Field tests of synthetic sex pheromone of the apple leafminer moth, Phyllonorycter ringoniella. J. Chemical Ecology, 24 (12): 1939-1947.

Böckmann, E., R. Meyhöfer. (2017). Sticky trap monitoring of a pest–predator system in glasshouse tomato crops: are available trap colours sufficient? Journal of Applied Entomology, Vol. 141, issue 5, June 2017, p. 339-351.

Campion, D. G. (1983). Pheromones for control of insect pests in Mediterranean countries. Crop protection. Vol. 2, issue 1, p. 3-16.

Cardé, R. T. J. S. Elkinton. (1984). Field trapping with attractants: Methods and interpretation. Techniques in Pheromone Research (Hummel, H E and Miller, T A eds.). Springer, New York. p. 111-129.

Chaplin-Kramen, R. O., M. Rourke, E. J. Blitzer, C. Kremen. (2011). A meta-analysis of crop pest and natural enemy response to landscape complexity. Ecol. Lett. 14, 922–932. (doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248. 2011.01642.x).

Čirjak, D., Iv. Miklečić, D. Lemić, Kos. Tomislav, Iv. Pajač Živković. (2022). "Automatic Pest Monitoring Systems in Apple Production under Changing Climatic Conditions" Horticulturae 8, no. 6: 520.

Cross, J. V., D. R. Hall, P. J. Innocenzi, H. Hesketh, C. N. Jay, C. M. Burgess, (2006b). Exploiting the aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Part 2. Pest monitoring and control. Crop Protection, 25 (2): 155 166.

Ehler, L. E. (2006). Integrated pest management (IPM): Definition, historical development and implementation, and the other IPM. Pest Manag. Sci. 62, 787–789.

Ekbom, B. S., Xu Rumei. (1990). Sampling and spatial patterns of whiteflies. pp. 107 121. In D. Gerling (ed.) Whiteflies: their bionomics, pest status and management. Intercept, Andover.

Gillespie, D. R., (1987). Don Quiring. Yellow Sticky Traps for Detecting and Monitoring Greenhouse Whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Adults on Greenhouse Tomato Crops, Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 80, Issue 3, 1 June, Pages 675–679,

Guedes, R. N. C., G. Smagghe, J. D. Stark, N. Desneux. (2016). Pesticide-induced stress in arthropod pests for optimized integrated pest management programs. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 61, 43–62. (doi:10.1146/ annurev-ento-010715-023646).

Jacquelyn, L. B., A. B. John, R. S. Cesar. (2008). Evaluation of color traps for monitoring Lygus spp.: design, placement, height, time of day, and non-target effects. Crop Protection, 27 (2): 171- 181.

Janssen, A, van Rijn PCJ. (2021). Pesticides do not significantly reduce arthropod pest densities in the presence of natural enemies. Ecol. Lett. 24, 2010–2024. (doi:10.1111/ele.13819).

Jepson, P.C., K. Murray, O. Bach, M. A. Bonilla, L. Neumeister. (2020). Selection of pesticides to reduce human and environmental health risks: a global guideline and minimum pesticides list. Lancet Planet Health 4, e56–e63. (doi:10.1016/S2542- 5196(19)30266-9).

Kennedy, C. M. et al. (2013). A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agroecosystems. Ecol. Lett. 16, 584–599. (doi:10.1111/ele.12082).

Losey, E. J., M. Vaughan, J. E. Losey, M. Vaughan. (2006). The economic value of ecological services provided by insects. Bioscience 56, 311–323. (doi:10.1641/ 0006-3568(2006)56[311:tevoes];2).

Lu, Y., Bei Yawei, Zh. Jinming. (2012). Are yellow sticky traps an effective method for control of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in the greenhouse or field?, Journal of Insect Science, Volume 12, Issue 1, 113,

Moreau, T. L., M.B. Isman. (2011). Trapping whiteflies, A comparison of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) responses to trap crops and yellow sticky traps. Pest Manag. Sci., 67, 408–413.

Mullen, M. A., A. K. Dowdy. (2001). A pheromone-baited trap for monitoring the Indian meal moth,Plodia interpunctella(Hübner). Journal of Stored Products Research. Volume 37, Issue 3, July 2001, Pages 231-235.

Nesser, G. A. A., A. O. Abdelbagi, A. M. A. Hammad, M. Tagelseed, M. D. Laing. (2016). Levels of pesticides residues in the White Nile water in the Sudan. Environ. Monit. Assess. 188, 374. (doi:10.1007/ s10661-016-5367-3).

Norman, K., A. Othman. (2006). Potentials of using the pheromone trap for monitoring and controlling the bagworm, Metisa plana Wlk (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) on young oil palm in a smallholder plantation. J. Asia-Pacific Entomology, 9 (3): 281-285.

Norman, K. S., A. Nurulhidayah, A. Othman, W. Mohd Basri, (2010). Pheromone mass trapping of bagworm moths, Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), for its control in mature oil palms in Perak, Malaysia. J. Asia-Pacific Entomology, 13 (2): 101-106.

Pinto-Zevallos Delia, M., Ir. Vänninen. (2013). Yellow sticky traps for decision-making in whitefly management: What has been achieved? Crop protection. Vol. 47, p. 74-84.

Sawadogo, M. W., I. Somda, S. Nacro, A. Legrève, F. J. Verheggen. (2020). Insecticide susceptibility level and control failure likelihood estimation of Sub-Saharan African populations of tomato leafminer: evidence from Burkina Faso. Physiol. Entomol. 45, 147–153. (doi:10.1111/ phen.12332).

Smit, N., M. Downham, P. Laboke, D. R. Hall, B. Odongo. (2001). Mass trapping male Cylas spp. with sex pheromones: a potential IPM component in sweet potato production in Uganda. Crop Prot., 20: 643-651.

Subchev, M. A., R. Moskova, G. Tzankov. (1994). Attraction of Thaumetopoea pityocampa Denis & Schiff. by synthetic sex pheromone in the field. Pheromones, 4: 3-10.

Witzgall, P., P. Kirsch, A. Cork. (2010). Sex Pheromones and Their Impact on Pest Management. J Chem Ecol 36, 80–100,


  • There are currently no refbacks.

New knowledge Journal of science is financed by the National Science Fund of the Republic of Bulgaria - contract № КП-06-НП1/5 of 17.12.2019 in the competition of Bulgarian scientific periodicals – 2019

New knowledge Journal of science is financed by the National Science Fund of the Republic of Bulgaria – contract № ДНП 05/52 от 22.12.2016 in the competition of Bulgarian scientific periodicals – 2016

The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the position or opinion of the National Science Fund of the Republic of Bulgaria. The opinions expressed are those of the author(s) only and should not be considered as representative of the National Science Fund’s official position.

National Science Fund of Bulgaria