Gülen Türker, İlknur AK


Macroalgae utilized in various fields during human history are recently used in medicine, pharmaceutics, and food industries. According to 2019 FAO data, macroalgae value up 30% of aquaculture and constitute all, 11.4 billion US dollars economic size. Thanks to its geomorphological salinity differences, the Çanakkale province supplies a farming possibility to many economically valued algae species. Although many academic studies are carried on, it has not been started commercially cultivation, yet. Turkey should be supported to take its place in the big market of seaweed culture technologies be exportation into algae production attended industrial projects.


macroalgae, cultivation, investment, Çanakkale, Turkey

Full Text:



Alemañ A.E., Robledo D., Hayashi L. 2019. Development of seaweed cultivation in Latin America: current trends and future prospects, Phycologia, 58:5, 462-471, DOI: 10.1080/00318884.2019. 1640996.

Ak, İ., Cirik, S., 2004. Distribution of Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfuss (Rhodophyta) in Izmir Bay (eastern Aegean Sea). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 7:2022-2023.

Ak, İ., Çetin, Z., Cirik, Ş., and Göksan, T., 2011a. Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfuss Culture Using an Agricultural Organic Fertilizers. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 20 (8a):2156-2162.

Ak İ., Öztaşkent C., Topçu N., 2011b. Effect of different carbon sources on green algae Ulva rigida (C. Agardh) culture. Ege J Fish Aqua Sci 28(3): 89-93.

Ak İ., Yücesan M., 2012.Effect of pigment composition of Gracilaria verrucosa (Rhodophyta). Fresenius environmental bulletin. 21(8): 2126-2131.

Ak, İ. 2015. Economic plants of aquatic environment; macro algae. Dünya Gıda Dergisi, Aralık 2015: 88- 97 (in Turkish).

Ak İ., Öztaşkent C., Özüdoğru Y., Göksan T. 2015. Effect of sodium acetate and sodium nitrate on biochemical composition of green algae Ulva rigida. Aquaculture International. 23 (1): 1-11 DOI: 10.1007/s10499-014-9793-3.

Ak İ., Öztaşkent C., 2016. Effect of LED lights on Chemical Composition of Cystoseira barbata Phaeophyceae. 63rd International Conference Food Science, Engineering and technology, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 21-22 October 2016, pp:72.

Ak İ., Türker G., 2018a. Antioxidant Activity of Five Seaweed Extracts. New knowledge Journal of science, 7(2), 149-155.

Ak İ., Türker G., 2018b. Antioxidant properties and phytochemicals of three brown macroalgae from the Dardanelles (Çanakkale) Strait. Agricultural Science and Technology, 10(4): 354-357.

Ak İ., Türker G., 2019. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Biochemical characteristics of Ulva rigida (Ulvophyceae) and Arthrospira platensis (Cyanophyceae. 4th International Anatolian Agriculture, Food, Environment and Biology Congress, Afyon, Turkey, 20 – 22 April 2019,147-155.

Arenas F., Fernández C., Rico J.M., Fernández E., Haya D., 1995. Growth and reproductive strategies of Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt and Cystoseira nodicaulis (Whit.) Roberts. Sci Mar 59(S1):1–8.

Aydoğmuş Z., Topcu G., Güven K. C., 2008. Studies on chemical constituents of Gracilaria verrucosa, Natural Product Research, 22:18, 1589-1596, DOI: 10.1080/14786410701838130.

Berik N., Çankırılıgil E.C., 2019. The Elemental Composition of Green Seaweed (Ulva rigida) Collected from Çanakkale, Turkey. Aquat Sci Eng. 34(3): 74-79. DOI: 10.26650/ ASE2019557380.

Bixler H.J., Porse H., 2011. A decade of change in the seaweed hydrocolloids industry. J Appl Phycol 23:321–335. DOI: 10.1007/s10811-010-9529-3.

Buschmann A.H., Camus C. 2019. An introduction to farming and biomass utilisation of marine macroalgae, Phycologia, 58:5, 443-445, DOI: 10.1080/00318884.2019.1638149.

Chávez-Sánchez T., Piñón-Gimate A., Serviere-Zaragoza E., Sánchez-González A., Hernández-Carmona G., Casas-Valdez M., 2017. Recruitment in Ulva blooms in relation to temperature, salinity and nutrients in a subtropical bay of the Gulf of California. Botanica Marina 60(3):1-14. DOI 10.1515/bot-2016-0066.

Cirik Ş., Çetin Z., Ak İ., Cirik S., Göksan T. 2010a. Greenhouse cultivation of Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Pappenfuss and determination of chemical composition. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 10:559-564. DOI: 10.4194/trjfas.2010.0417.

Cirik Ş., Sen E., Ak İ. 2010b. Brown algae Cystoseira barbata (Stackhouse) C. Agardh culture and changes in its chemical composition. Journal of 4(4):354-361. DOI: 10.1007/s10499-014-9793-3.

Coffaro G., Sfriso A., 1997. Simulation model of Ulva rigida growth in shallow water of the Lagoon of Venice. Ecological Modelling 102:55 – 66.

Çelikler S., Yıldız G., Vatan O., Bilaloğlu R., 2008. In vitro Antigenotoxicity of Ulva rigida C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae) Extract against Induction of Chromosome Aberration, Sister Chromatid Exchange and Micronuclei by Mutagenic Agent MMC1. Biomedical and Environment Sciences 21: 492-49.

Çelikler S., Taş, S., Ziyanok-Ayvalık S., Vatan O., Yıldız G., Özel M., 2014. Protective and antigenotoxic effect of Ulva rigida C. Agardh in experimental hypothyroid. Acta Biologica Hungarica 65(1):13–26. DOI: 10.1556/ABiol.65.2014.1.2.

Çolakoğlu F., Ak İ., 2017. Evaluation of Seaweed Resources as Functional Food in Turkey. Jubilee International Scientific Conference Bulgaria of Regions Sustainable Regional Development Perspectives 27-28 October 2017, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

De Almeida, C.L.F.; de S. Falcão, H.; de M. Lima, G.R.; de A. Montenegro, C.; Lira, N.S.; de Athayde-Filho, P.F.; Rodrigues, L.C.; de Souza, M.F.V.; Barbosa-Filho, J.M.; Batista, L.M. 2011. Bioactivities from marine algae of the genus Gracilaria. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, 4550–4573.

Dimitrova-Konaklieva, St., 2000. Flora of algae in Bulgaria (Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta). Pensoft, Sofia-Moskva, pp. 29 ISBN:13 9789546421128.

Duarte C.M., Wu J., Xiao X., Bruhn A., Krause-Jensen D. 2017. Can seaweed farming play a role in climate change mitigation and adaptation? Frontiers in Marine Science 4: 1–10. DOI: 10.3389/ fmars.2017.00100.

Dural B., Demir N., 2001. Ecological, Anatomical and Morphological Studies on Ulva rigida C. Agardh (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) in the Coast of İzmir (Aegean Sea-Turkey). Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 7 (3):74-80.

Falace A., Bressan G., 2006. Seasonal variations of Cystoseira barbata (Stackhouse) C. Agardh frond architecture. Hydrobiologia 555:193–206.

FAO. 2019a. FishStat. Global aquaculture production 1950–2017. http://; searched on 07 October 2019.

FAO. 2019b. FishStat. Global production statistics 1950–2017. http://; searched on 07 October 2019.

Fernández P.A., Leal P.P., Henríquez L.A. 2019. Co-culture in marine farms: macroalgae can act as chemical refuge for shell-forming molluscs under an ocean acidification scenario. Phycologia 58: 542–551. DOI: 10.1080/00318884.2019.1628576.

Gioelea C., Marilenaa S., Valbona A., Nunziacarlaa S., Andreaa S., Antonio M., 2017. Gracilaria gracilis, Source of Agar: A Short Review. Current Organic Chemistry, 21 (5):380-386.

Gümüş, B., Ünlüsayın, M., 2016. Determination of antimicrobial activity of two macroalgae extracts. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 33(4): 389-395. Doi: 10.12714/egejfas.2016.33.4.13.

İlyas M., 1997. Seasonal Variation in Chemical Constituents of Unextracted Material (Residue) of Gracilaria verrucosa, After the Extraction of Agar. Turk J Biol, 21: 495-505.

İrkin, L. C., Erduğan, H., 2014a. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition of Cystoseira barbata (Stackhouse) C. Agardh distributed in the Strait of Çanakkale. Ege J Fish Aqua Sci 31(4): 209-213. Doi: 10.12714/egejfas.2014.31.4.06

İrkin, L. C., Erduğan, H., 2014b. Chemical composition of Ulva rigida C. Agardh from the Çanakkale Strait (Dardanelles), Turkey. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment. Vol. 20(2): 114˗121.

Koru, E., Cirik, S., Turan, G., Ak, İ., and Başaran, A. 2008. The effects of different light intensities on the Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfuss Culture. E.U. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 25 (3):187-190

Manev Z., Iliev A., Vachkova V., 2013. Chemical Characterization of brown seaweed – Cystoeira barbata. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 19 (1): 12–15

Ozdemir G., Horzum Z., Sukatar A., Karabay-Yavasoglu N.U., 2006. Antimicrobial Activities of Volatile Components and Various Extracts of Dictyopteris membranaceae and Cystoseira barbata from the Coast of Izmir, Turkey, Pharmaceutical Biology, 44 (3):183-188, DOI: 10.1080/13880200600685949

Phillips, J. A. 1990. Life History Studies of Ulva rigida C. Ag. and Ulva stenophylla S. et G. (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) in Southern Australia. Botanica Marina, 33(1):79-84. DOI:10.1515/botm.1990.33.1.79

Roberts M (1967) Studies on marine algae of the British Isles. 3. The genus Cystoseira. Br Phyc Bull 3:345–366

Sellimi, S., Ksouda, G., Ben slima, A., Nasri, R., Rinaudo, M., Nasri, M., Hajji, M., 2017. Enhancing colour and oxidative stabilities of reduced-nitrites turkey meat sausages during refrigerated storage using fucoxanthin purified from the Tunisian seaweed Cystoseira barbata, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.04.001.

Taş S., Çelikler S., Ziyanok-Ayvalık S., Sarandol E., Dirican M., 2011. Ulva rigida improves carbohydrate metabolism, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats. Cell biochemistry & Function. 29(2): 108 – 113. DOI: 10.1002/cbf.1729

Taşkın E., Çakır M., Akçalı B., Sungur Ö., 2019. Benthic marine flora of the Marmara Sea (TURKEY). J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment. 25(1): 1 – 28.

Tok A., Ak İ. 2015. Sexual Production of Cystoseira barbata C. Agardh from Brown Algae. 18th National Fisheries Symposium. Izmir, Turkey, 1 – 4 September 2015, 1(1): 176 (in Turkish).

Topçu N., Öztaşkent C., Ak İ., Göksan T., Yiğit M., 2012. Integrated Aquaculture of Fish and Green Seaweed. Harmonization of Biodiversity and Marine Industries. Turkey-Japan Marine forum, Çanakkale, Turkey. 9 – 12 Kasım 2012.pp:51

Topçu Öztaşkent N., Ak İ., 2017. Effects of Urea Enrichment on Biochemical Composition of Cystoseira barbata. VIII. International Symposium on Ecology and Environmental Problems, Çanakkale, Turkey, 4-7 October 2017, vol.1 pp.272.

TÜİK (2018). Turkey imports and exports statistics. 1969 - 2018.

Turan G., Tekoğul H., 2014. The Turkish Mezzes Formulated with Protein-Rich Green Sea Vegetable (Chlorophyta), Ulva rigida, Cultured in Onshore Tank System. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 23(5): 447-452, DOI: 10.1080/10498850.2012.723307

Türkoğlu M., Baba A., Özcan H., Determination and evaluation of some physicochemical parameters in the Dardanelles (Canakkale Strait, Turkey) using multiple probe system and geographic information system. Nordic Hydrology. 37(3): 293–301.

Uzun E., Berik N., 2019. Evaluation of Sensorial Properties of Drink Prepared with Marine Sources. COMU J Mar Sci Fish 2(1): 127-131.

Wallentinus I., Nyberg C.D. 2007. Introduced marine organisms as habitat modifiers. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 55(7-9): 323-332, DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.11.010

Yildiz G., Celikler S., Vatan O., Dere S., 2012. Determination of the Anti-Oxidative Capacity and Bioactive Compounds in Green Seaweed Ulva rigida C. Agardh. International Journal of Food Properties, 15(6):1182-1189. DOI: 10.1080/10942912.2010.517341


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.